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As humans ventured into the twentieth century, the industrialized countries were confronted with the scourge of rickets. Although solariums were becoming common in the early 1900s and phototherapy was gaining popularity as a result of the awarding of a Nobel Prize to Finsen in 1903, it wasn't until 1921 when Hess and Unger demonstrated that rickets could be cured by exposure to sunlight that the healthful benefit of sun exposure appreciated. In 1941, Apperly (Cancer Research; 1: 191-195, 1941) noted that the occasional increased risk of skin cancer was associated with a decreased risk of many other more common and serious cancers. The alarming increase in the number of cases of skin cancer, especially melanoma, has caused great concern about the negative role of sunlight in health. The Sixth International Arnold Rikli Symposium on the Biologic Effects of Light was held in Boston, Massachusetts from June 16th - 18th, 2001. The goal of this Symposium was to focus on the very popular practice of tanning either by sunlight or by artificial light sources and the overall impact this practice has on health and disease. The program was organized by members of the Scientific Advisory Committee and my co-chair emeritus, Professor Ernst G. Jung. The Program Committee organized an outstanding state-of-the-art program that was enthusiastically received by the participants.
It is remarkable how much we take for granted the tremendous energy and vitality that the sun provides earth's inhabitants. As we enter the new millennium, it is worthwhile to review how our ancestors perceived the biologic effects of sunlight, and how science and medicine have advanced our knowledge about the biologic effects of light. At the turn of the century, a multitude of investigators explored the use of sunlight and artificial radiation for treating a multitude of diseases. These explorations gave rise to photodynamic therapy, phototherapy, and chemophototherapy. However, enthusiasm for using sunlight and artificial radiation to treat disease was dampened with the birth of pharmacology. It was the goal of the Fifth International Arnold Rikli Symposium on the Biologic Effects of Light, held in Basel, Switzerland, on November 1-3, 1998, to review the history of phototherapy and have some of the world's leading experts on the biologic effects of light provide new perspectives on the positive and negative effects of light. The general topics included a broad range of biologic effects of sunlight, artificial ultraviolet radiation and electromagnetic radiation. Special sessions on radiation and vitamin D and bone health, photoimmunology, biopositive effects of UV radiation, effects of electromagnetic currents and fields, and ocular and non-ocular regulation of circadian rhythms and melatonin, should be of particular interest to readers of Biologic Effects of Light.
New lighting best practices, from a design-research collaboration
Evidence-Based Lighting Design explores how light affects human health and well-being, and provides real-world examples and guidelines for designers. Written by internationally recognized and award-winning lighting experts, the book combines design theory and scientific research to establish best practices for lighting design. Contributions by prominent medical and scientific researchers provide real evidence validating the long-held assumption that design impacts the users of the space, and the book expands upon the research to provide an accessible, easy-to-read guide to the theory, concepts, and practice of evidence-based lighting design.
Evidence-based design is a research-based approach designers use to understand how the built environment influences behavior. When applied to lighting, the evidence was made clear when the American Medical Association announced that lighting does indeed affect human well-being. The recent integration of scientific evidence into lighting design has become a top priority for lighting designers, and Evidence-Based Lighting Design is the first comprehensive reference in the field. The book discusses the results of research, and offers advice on incorporating these new guidelines into the design process. Topics include:
The book includes case studies that illustrate the real-life impact of lighting, exploring aspects like artificial environments, clinical environments, and the effects of light on plants and animals. The guidelines that result represent the collaboration of designers and researchers, making Evidence-Based Lighting Design the most complete field resource on the market.
Intelligent agents are employed as the central characters in this new introductory text. Beginning with elementary reactive agents, Nilsson gradually increases their cognitive horsepower to illustrate the most important and lasting ideas in AI. Neural networks, genetic programming, computer vision, heuristic search, knowledge representation and reasoning, Bayes networks, planning, and language understanding are each revealed through the growing capabilities of these agents. The book provides a refreshing and motivating new synthesis of the field by one of AI's master expositors and leading researchers. Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis takes the reader on a complete tour of this intriguing new world of AI.
TOWARDS THE LIGHT By Princess Mary Karadja (written in 1899) Founder of The White Cross Union. Author of King Solomon, The Seven Sacraments, etc. The fate and redemption of a suicide told in inspiring blank verse. A noble message from the Great Beyond. This poem is a powerful meditation on the theme: "Whatsoever a man sows that shall he reap." Shows spiritually the futility of suicide. Just not an option. Most interesting expose on the after-life. Symbolical story of the initiate and the final ascension. The story is told in dramatic and moving language. There is a chain of circumstances powerfully described. The shortest stories often contain the most powerful messages. Indeed, this short prose-poem includes so much occult lore that a book can be written about it. Will appeal to the general reader as well as to the Metaphysician. Her Majesty Queen Alexandra has graciously intimated her pleasure in accepting a presentation copy. King Oscar of Sweden read it aloud at a reception in 1901. Mr. Stanford of California presented 500 copies to the free libraries of Australia. Swedish, Danish, Dutch, Finnish and German editions have appeared in addition to the English edition. To the Author's knowledge this poem has saved at least fifteen persons from suicide.
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