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"Form," writes the author, "is developed by means of light and shade; without these every object would appear flat." Originally published in the mid-nineteenth century, this classic approach to three-dimensional drawing was the first book to provide art students with instructions for correctly illustrating perspective outlines of various objects.
As humans ventured into the twentieth century, the industrialized countries were confronted with the scourge of rickets. Although solariums were becoming common in the early 1900s and phototherapy was gaining popularity as a result of the awarding of a Nobel Prize to Finsen in 1903, it wasn't until 1921 when Hess and Unger demonstrated that rickets could be cured by exposure to sunlight that the healthful benefit of sun exposure appreciated. In 1941, Apperly (Cancer Research; 1: 191-195, 1941) noted that the occasional increased risk of skin cancer was associated with a decreased risk of many other more common and serious cancers. The alarming increase in the number of cases of skin cancer, especially melanoma, has caused great concern about the negative role of sunlight in health. The Sixth International Arnold Rikli Symposium on the Biologic Effects of Light was held in Boston, Massachusetts from June 16th - 18th, 2001. The goal of this Symposium was to focus on the very popular practice of tanning either by sunlight or by artificial light sources and the overall impact this practice has on health and disease. The program was organized by members of the Scientific Advisory Committee and my co-chair emeritus, Professor Ernst G. Jung. The Program Committee organized an outstanding state-of-the-art program that was enthusiastically received by the participants.
It is remarkable how much we take for granted the tremendous energy and vitality that the sun provides earth's inhabitants. As we enter the new millennium, it is worthwhile to review how our ancestors perceived the biologic effects of sunlight, and how science and medicine have advanced our knowledge about the biologic effects of light. At the turn of the century, a multitude of investigators explored the use of sunlight and artificial radiation for treating a multitude of diseases. These explorations gave rise to photodynamic therapy, phototherapy, and chemophototherapy. However, enthusiasm for using sunlight and artificial radiation to treat disease was dampened with the birth of pharmacology. It was the goal of the Fifth International Arnold Rikli Symposium on the Biologic Effects of Light, held in Basel, Switzerland, on November 1-3, 1998, to review the history of phototherapy and have some of the world's leading experts on the biologic effects of light provide new perspectives on the positive and negative effects of light. The general topics included a broad range of biologic effects of sunlight, artificial ultraviolet radiation and electromagnetic radiation. Special sessions on radiation and vitamin D and bone health, photoimmunology, biopositive effects of UV radiation, effects of electromagnetic currents and fields, and ocular and non-ocular regulation of circadian rhythms and melatonin, should be of particular interest to readers of Biologic Effects of Light.
Is human creativity a wall that AI can never scale? Many people are happy to admit that experts in many domains can be matched by either knowledge-based or sub-symbolic systems, but even some AI researchers harbor the hope that when it comes to feats of sheer brilliance, mind over machine is an unalterable fact. In this book, the authors push AI toward a time when machines can autonomously write not just humdrum stories of the sort seen for years in AI, but first-rate fiction thought to be the province of human genius. It reports on five years of effort devoted to building a story generator--the BRUTUS.1 system.
The study of flight dynamics requires a thorough understanding of the theory of the stability and control of aircraft, an appreciation of flight control systems and a grounding in the theory of automatic control. Flight Dynamics Principles is a student focused text and provides easy access to all three topics in an integrated modern systems context.
Written for those coming to the subject for the first time, the book provides a secure foundation from which to move on to more advanced topics such as, non-linear flight dynamics, flight simulation, handling qualities and advanced flight control.
About the author:
After graduating Michael Cook joined Elliott Flight Automation as a Systems Engineer and contributed flight control systems design to several major projects. Later he joined the College of Aeronautics to research and teach flight dynamics, experimental flight mechanics and flight control. Previously leader of the Dynamics, Simulation and Control Research Group he is now retired and continues to provide part time support. In 2003 the Group was recognised as the Preferred Academic Capability Partner for Flight Dynamics by BAE SYSTEMS and in 2007 he received a Chairman's Bronze award for his contribution to a joint UAV research programme.
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