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This comprehensive text examines the technical, practical, and aesthetic aspects of lighting design. With its focus on quality, it demonstrates how lighting designers provide functional, safe, and aesthetically pleasing designs for both residential and commercial interiors. The author's extensive research integrates developments in the field with an introduction to lighting systems, giving readers a foundation for applying design principles to lighting projects.
'Lighting Engineering: Applied Calculations' describes the mathematical background to the calculation techniques used in lighting engineering and links them to the applications with which they are used. The fundamentals of flux and illuminance, colour, measurement and optical design are covered in detail. There are detailed discussions of specific applications, including interior lighting, road lighting, tunnel lighting, floodlighting and emergency lighting. The authors have used their years of experience to provide guidance for common mistakes and useful techniques including worked examples and case studies.
By reading this book, you will develop the skills to perceive a space and its contents in light, and be able to devise a layout of luminaires that will provide that lit appearance.
Written by renowned lighting expert Christopher (Kit) Cuttle, the book:
Practical lighting design involves devising three-dimensional light fields that create luminous hierarchies related to the visual significance of each element within a scene. By providing you with everything you need to develop a design concept - from the understanding of how lighting influences human perceptions of surroundings, through to engineering efficient and effective lighting solutions - Kit Cuttle instills in his readers a new-found confidence in lighting design.
Get To Work with Science and Technology is a fascinating new series that introduces readers to the real-life applications of STEM subjects. In this titles readers will discover how designers use their computer science skills and the latest technology to create the games people love to play.
Of the two major products of the gene (proteins and microRNAs) it is the protein that is the functional unit of biology. A combinatorial association of 20 amino acids in linear chains of up to 30,000 residues generates, or can generate in theory, many more proteins than there are stars in our universe. The protein molecule can be chemically active, in the form of an enzyme, whose catalytic effect can speed up chemical reactions by a thousand- to a million-fold. It can be a structural component acting as a tissue support or allowing the transmission of force. It can function as a binding protein, acting to transport other molecules or atoms or act as a receptor binding its ligand to transmit information into the cell.Â
Not stated in the central dogma, but generally taken for granted, was that each protein product of the gene had one single biological function. This one-protein-one-function hypothesis was falsified by the first example of a protein exhibiting two functions. In addition, the transparency of a protein is not really a functional property but is a physical property of these molecules. So it was not until the 1990s that additional examples of proteins exhibiting more than one function were identified and another term to describe this phenomenon was introduced. Connie Jeffery, from the University of Chicago, introduced the term Protein Moonlighting in 1999 for the phenomenon of proteins having more than one unique biological function. Since the introduction of the term, protein moonlighting, a slow trickle of serendipitous discoveries of moonlighting proteins has been made such that at the time of writing over one hundred examples of such proteins have been made.Â While this is a small number of examples, it is possibly only the tip of the iceberg that is the proportion of moonlighting proteins in biology.
Protein moonlighting has only come to prominence in the last 15 years. Although only a small number of protein families have been found to moonlight, the consequences of such additional activities are alreadyÂ known to be of significance in both biological and pathological/medical terms. Moonlighting proteins are known to be involved in human diseases such as cancer and there is rapidly emerging evidence for a major role for protein moonlighting in the infectious diseases. Protein moonlighting has potential consequences for various branches of biology.Â The most obvious is the field of protein evolution. In moonlighting proteins not one, but two or more, active sites have evolved. This calls into question our current models of protein evolution and generates a range of questions as to the evolutionary mechanisms involved. Further, as it is emerging that moonlighting protein homologues do not necessarily share particular moonlighting activities the level of evolutionary complexity in generating biologically active sites seems much greater than was previously thought.Â
This book brings together a biochemist (Henderson) an evolutionary biologist (Fares) and a protein bioinformaticist (Martin) who have had a long-term interest in protein moonlighting. The discussion covers all aspects of the phenomenon of protein moonlighting from its evolution to structural biology and on the the biological and medical consequences of its occurrence. The book should be of interest to the widest range of biomedical scientists.
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