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New interest in light microscopy of the last few years has not been backed up by adequate general literature. This book intends to fill the gap between specialized texts on detailed topics and general introductory booklets, mostly dealing with the use of the conventional light microscope only. In this short textbook both new developments in microscopy and basic facts of image formation will be treated, including often neglected topics such as axial resolving power, lens construction, photomicrography and correct use of phase-en interference contrast systems. Theoretical background will be dealt with as far as necessary for a well-considered application of these techniques enabling a deliberate choice for the approach of a certain problem. Over 150 illustrations (photomicrographs and diagrams) complete the information on microscopy of the nineties in the biomedical field, intended for scientists, doctors, technicians and research students. Many drawings have been contributed by the illustrator R. Kreuger; the photographic work has been executed by J. Peeterse. Secretarial assistance in preparing the manuscript was given by Ms T. M. S. Pierik. Dr M. J. Pearson has corrected the English of the final text.
After a tumultuous year in New York City, the Austins are spending the summer on the small island where their grandfather lives. He’s very sick, and watching his condition deteriorate as the summer passes is almost more than Vicky can bear. To complicate matters, she finds herself as the center of attention for three very different boys.
This book presents the first systematic analysis of artistic techniques and terminology related to the rendering of light and shade in Dutch and Flemish art from the early-seventeenth to the mid-eighteenth century. It traces a shift in aesthetic perception, which is visible in the handling of chiaroscuro in Dutch and Flemish art in the course of 150 years, and challenges the view, widespread since Julius von Schlosser's influential survey of European art and literarure, that Netherlandish art was mainly uninventive. In their discussions Netherlandish writers of art theory drew on a) earlier and foreign art literature, b) their insights, mainly as painters, into workshop practice, c) observation of nature (including natural sciences) and d) aesthetic judgement. This volume investigates the different extents to which Netherlandisch writers on art depended on these four aspects as they devised their concepts of chiaroscuro and how this relates to contemporary pictorial practice. Statements on chiaroscuro in the writings of Karel van Mander, Philips Angel, Willem Goeree, Samuel van Hoogstraten, Gerard de Lairesse, Arnold Houbraken and Jacob Campo Weyerman have been compared with paintings of the period to test the writers' statements against the artists'methods. The comparison shows that writers of art theory described partly the same or similar methods to achieve effects of chiaroscuro that artists used in their works, which is understandable, given that most of them were active as artists themselves. Yet there are also divergences, especially when it comes to the question whether artists should value rendering natural effects over pictorial coherence. Dutch writers of art regarded natural impression as a crucial aim of art, but they often struggled with reconciling nature and aesthetic requirements in their arguments. In the art of the Netherlands, however, we can observe frequently that aesthetic and pictorial composition came before nature.
Microemulsions and gels are well-known systems, which play a major role in colloidal and interfacial science. In contrast, the concept of gel microemulsions is still quite new. Gelled microemulsions are highly promising for microemulsion applications in which low viscosity is undesirable, such as administering a drug-delivering microemulsion to a certain area of the skin. It is essential to understand the properties of and structures formed in a system combining microemulsion components and a gelator. This PhD thesis by Michaela Laupheimer provides an in-depth discussion of the phase behavior and sol-gel transition of a microemulsion gelled by a low molecular weight gelator as well as the rheological behavior of a gelled bicontinuous microemulsion. Moreover, the microstructure of the gelled bicontinuous system is fully clarified using techniques like self-diffusion NMR and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). By comparing gelled bicontinuous microemulsions with corresponding non-gelled microemulsions and binary gels, it is demonstrated that bicontinuous microemulsion domains coexist with a gelator network and that the coexisting structures possess no fundamental mutual influence. Hence, gelled bicontinuous microemulsions have been identified as a new type of orthogonal self-assembled system.
This book presents flight mechanics of aircraft, spacecraft, and rockets to technical and non-technical readers in simple terms and based purely on physical principles. Adapting an accessible and lucid writing style, the book retains the scientific authority and conceptual substance of an engineering textbook without requiring a background in physics or engineering mathematics. Professor Tewari explains relevant physical principles of flight by straightforward examples and meticulous diagrams and figures. Important aspects of both atmospheric and space flight mechanics are covered, including performance, stability and control, aeroelasticity, orbital mechanics, and altitude control. The book describes airplanes, gliders, rotary wing and flapping wing flight vehicles, rockets, and spacecraft and visualizes the essential principles using detailed illustration. It is an ideal resource for managers and technicians in the aerospace industry without engineering degrees, pilots, and anyone interested in the mechanics of flight.
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