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The XIIlth General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, held in Prague from 22 to 31 August, 1967, brought together more than 1800 active astron- omers from 40 countries. The agenda of the Assembly ranged from administrative questions to highly intricate scientific problems. Thirty-eight Presidents of the IAU Commissions contributed by their reports to a detailed survey of Astronomy for the period 1964-67. These reports were published in the Transactions of the IAU, Volume XIIIA. Transactions volume XIIIB bring the results of the administrative meetings and of the meetings of Commissions held during the General Assembly. The present volume is devoted to the most important scientific results of the General Assembly as presented in the Invited Discourses, Joint Discussions, and at Special Meetings. It is an established policy of the Union to invite prominent astronomers to hold, during the General Assembly, formal discourses on topics of major importance due to recent significant developments. These Invited Discourses cover, as a rule, broad fields of astronomical interest and are meant to give basic information also to scien- tists from other branches. Subjects which call for a more detailed technical approach are dealt with in the Joint Discussions or at Special Meetings. Here, invited speakers present authoritative surveys complemented by communications on current or envisaged projects. The proceedings of two other meetings, on Moon Probes and on Coordination of Solar Observations Made at Ground-based Observatories and with Space Vehicles, are of a sufficiently wide interest to warrant the inclusion into this volume.
Recent achievements in sunlight concentration techniques have increased the potential of solar power as a viable source of renewable energy. Through its critical analysis of current methods, Photovoltaic Conversion of Concentrated Sunlight provides a comprehensive treatment of the issues involved in the creation of an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. The authors introduce significant new original research and offer an insight into previously inaccessible Russian studies. Logically structured, the text presents both theoretical and practical advances in the field. Features include:<br> * Discussion of fabrication problems for both terrestrial and space photovoltaic installations<br> * Investigation of the impact of resistive losses on the operation of solar cells and new procedures for measuring components of internal resistance<br> * Explanation of the semiconductor physics underlying photovoltaics<br> * Examination of the most efficient concentrator solar cell structures and materials plus exploration of ways to improve cell performance<br> * Original theoretical and experimental results on luminescence phenomena in concentrator cells<br> * Useful measurement techniques for the determination of diagnostic cell parameters<br> * Analysis of energy characteristics of photovoltaic installations with high and low concentration ratios<br> An invaluable asset to industrialists and academics concerned with semiconductors and photovoltaics, this book will also serve environmental scientists through its examination of the problems associated with large-scale use of this ecological technology.
Climate change is not visible in the sunlight, but the basis for it is. Climate change is forced by the Sun. The sunlight reveals that changes is solar activity reflect cosmic factors, external to the Sun, which the Sun merely responds to. The sunlight overturns the long-standing misperception that the Sun is a sphere of hydrogen gas that is powered from within by nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. It is physically impossible for such a Sun to produce the type of sunlight that we see. The phenomenon can only be created by a plasma-powered Sun, with plasma-fusion reactions occurring on its surface. Such a Sun is externally powered. Its actions fluctuate with changing conditions in interstellar space. The big climate changes on Earth are the result of that. Climate Change is never manmade. Anthropomorphic Climate Change is impossible. The climate changes on Earth are forced by the Sun via solar cosmic ray fluctuation that affects cloudiness. The solar effects on the Earth climate are even measurable in Carbon-14 isotope ratios. But the biggest climate change is yet to come, in the 2050s, when the plasma-focusing system breaks down under threshold conditions, and becomes inactive. In this inactive mode the solar activity reverts to the cosmic default level, its inactive state in which 70% less energy is being produced and the next Ice Age begins. The sunlight stands as an item of evidence for this extremely critical potential. Numerous fields of evidence tell us that the next Ice Age is near. That's where the truth begins. Most of the evidence was discovered in the 1990s and thereafter. Some evidence is measured in ice cores; some is measured in space, by satellites. Some measurements are also made on the ground in terms of measurements of the Earth's magnetic-pole drift observed in northern Canada. All of this is seen combined with high-energy physics experiments at a leading national laboratory, and is also explored in the small in static experiments. Against the background of these widely diverse types of evidence that have been recently discovered, the historic Little Ice Age in the 1600s, takes on a new dimension as a yardstick for measuring the future that by this evidence promises to be up to 40-times colder than the Little Ice Age had been. It qualifies for the term, Absolute! The evidence poses a great challenge ahead. Are we ready to respond? The Ice Age phase shift in climate is a stark in differences as night and day, and similarly fast. In the Little Ice Age between 10% and up to 30% of the populations in Europe had perished by starvation. The last Big Ice Age was evidently vastly harsher. Only 1-10 million people emerged from it alive. That's all we had after 2 million years of development. We want to do far better this time around; and we can, with large-scale technological infrastructures for our food supply. But will we create them? Will we get the job done in the 30 years that we still have left before the Ice Age starts anew? Will we even consider it? And how certain are we that the phase shift to the next glaciation period will begin, as the evidence suggests, in the 2050s? We have no slack on this front. We have no slack on this front. Should we fail us on this absolute front, we would be committing suicide. So, what will the answer be? Will we move with the evidence? Or will we lay ourselves down to die by default? It takes an independent researcher to brake the taboos that have kept mainstream cosmology imprisoned, increasingly, during the past century, even while what is regarded as taboo is known to be wrong.
Presenting a complete guide for the planning, design and implementation of solar PV systems for off-grid applications, this book features analysis based on the authors' own laboratory testing as well as their in the field experiences. Incorporating the latest developments in smart-digital and control technologies into the design criteria of the PV system, this book will also focus on how to integrate newer smart design approaches and techniques for improving the efficiency, reliability and flexibility of the entire system. The design and implementation of India's first-of its-kind Smart Mini-Grid system (SMG) at TERI premises, which involves the integration of multiple renewable energy resources (including solar PV) through smart controllers for managing the load intelligently and effectively is presented as a key case study. Maximizing reader insights into the performance of different components of solar PV systems under different operating conditions, the book will be of interest to graduate students, researchers, PV designers, planners, and practitioners working in the area of solar PV design, implementation and assessment.
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